benthic foraminifera environment

4a and b). A few workers, however, suggested that the preference of A. tepida for fine-grained organic carbon-rich sediments may be the reason for its dominance in polluted regions [1]. The diversity and species richness tend to increase in the deeper areas under greater oceanic influence where there is also an increase of, for instance, E. margaritaceum, L. ochracea, L. lobatula, R. concava, B. ordinaria, C. ungerianus, P. mediterranensis, E. gerthi, E. complanatum, B. pseudoplicata, B. elongata/B. Benthic foraminifera are able to organise in specific assemblages, in response to different environmental conditions. The distribution pattern of the living foraminiferal assemblages in the continental shelf of the Campos Basin changes depending on the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, and the supply of organic matter. Continental shelf of Campos Basin area. Two main foraminiferal assemblages, with distinct characteristics with respect to the typical Mediterranean shallow-water ones, were recognized by means of Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling, and a Canonical Correspondence Analysis deduced their environmental significance. As the region surrounding the Aveiro Lagoon is densely populated, in the most confined areas located near cities and villages or close to the rivers’ mouths, higher available concentrations of PTE (such as Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) can be found. However, the ecological preference of P. cananeiaensis is not yet well known in Brazil (Debenay et al., 2001c)***. São Sebastião Channel (SSC) is an open area where industrial and domestic effluents are separately disposed, but under similar natural conditions, offering the opportunity to compare their impact on benthic biota [53]. The aim of this study is to study the benthic foraminiferal assemblages in coral reefs community and sea grass bad of Belitung Islands and to use that information to determine the environmental quality of their coral reefs based on FORAM Index. In this case, only living (rose Bengal stained) benthic foraminifera were analyzed in combined samples collected in four different slices of the cores (0–2, 2–5, 5–10, and 10–15 cm) to understand the distribution patterns and their ecology. The case study of Aveiro Lagoon, commonly known as Ria de Aveiro, was based on the analysis of geochemical, sedimentological, and environmental parameters combined with living benthic foraminifera. 1. Richness values varied from 12 to 33 species. With a biodiversity of more than 10,000 species, they primarily occur in marine environments (Murray, 2006). The average depth of the lagoon is approximately 1 m relative to the local chart datum (2.0 m below mean sea level) [27] although there are deeper areas close to the lagoon mouth, where depths may reach values of ≈30 m. Nevertheless, the bathymetry in this zone has changed over time due to both natural and anthropogenic causes [28]. The highest densities were identified at stations SSC3 (266 specimens) and SSC6 (296 specimens). Benthic Foraminifera as Bioindicator of Coral Reef Environmental Condition Based on Foram Index in Natuna Islands, Province of Riau Islands - Neliti Foraminifera is one of single-celled protozoa, living in the water environment especially marine waters. pustulata Quinque loc ul ina poe yana Nonion of. According to Sousa et al. Marine caves are natural laboratories where studying the effects of environmental variability. Such is the case of B. marginata [61] and B. elegantissima [14]. Ammonia tepida has been invariably reported as a potential bioindicator of pollution at the majority of the coastal polluted sites [1]. By contrast, the rainy season takes place in summer and corresponds to the period with higher precipitation and with more frequent upwelling events. This probably results from the dispersion of effluents by the currents that affect the São Sebastião Channel. Living assemblages of foraminifera can be quite variable over time depending on the variability of the physicochemical parameters (according to weather changes). In intermediate conditions, the biomass and abundance curves cross each other several times. [62] noted that B. elegantissima and B. marginata tend to be abundant in areas affected by pollutants. Benthic foraminifera live in, or on, the seafloor. The environmental meaning of ecozones was deduced from the ecological response of benthic foraminifera. Species richness values varied from 13 to 28 species. Foraminifera Ecology In marine environments, Foraminifera are either planktonic or benthic. In this study, we evaluate the benthic foraminiferal response to methane seepage in Arctic sediments. Variations in morphology and growth rate have also been observed in clonal communities of benthic foraminifera . Living foraminifera density tends to increase in fine-grained sediments enriched in organic matter. The Campos Basin is located between latitudes 21°S and 23°S in the southwestern margin of the South Atlantic Ocean (Figure 5). Living benthic foraminifera of the Campos Basin continental shelf were studied in 239 samples collected in nine transects (A–I) perpendicular to the coast line. Armynot du Châtelet et al. SSC, located between the latitudes 23°40′S and 23°53.5′S and the longitudes 45°19′ and 45°30′W, is a 25 km stretch, which separates the continent from São Sebastião island (Figure 2). The composition of the foraminifera assemblages allowed to detect areas under upwelling influence on the continental shelf. Among these, the central region of the channel has the largest petroliferous terminals of South America, “Dutos e Terminais Centro Sul” (DTCS) of PETROBRAS. Deep-sea benthic foraminifera have played a central role in biostratigraphic, paleoecological, and paleoceanographical research for over a century. Benthic foraminifera are unicellular, aquatic (marine and brackish) eukaryotic organisms. The stations followed nine transects from 400 to 3000 m deep (Figure 5). The abundance of benthic foraminifera populations is strongly enlarged by the seasonal supply of phytobenthos and phytoplankton. Benthic foraminifera have been proved to be excellent envi-ronmental bio-indicators in paralic environments, such as es-tuaries and lagoons (Coccioni, 2000; Frontalini et al., 2009; Armynot du Châtelet and Debenay, 2010). Careful quality control ensured similar patterns of screening and identification of living foraminifera, making the differences between pickers minimized. Owing to this low density, the volume of analyzed sediment needed to obtain 95 stained individuals varied from 40 to 190 cm3. Number of species per sample (SR) varied from 0 to 28 and Shannon index values (H) were < 2.8. This allows for the use of these foraminifera to quantify environmental quality with respect to coral health. ABC curves of the continental shelf assemblages of foraminifers. In this work, the ABC curves were generated for each group in both periods with all the species in which it was possible to calculate the biomass. The main goal of this chapter is to provide information about environmental factors that may influence the patterns of distribution of living benthic foraminifera in transitional and marine ecosystems. The study of these protists has huge potential implications and benefits. *Address all correspondence to: virginia.martins@ua.pt. Location of Campos Basin in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean and sampling sites of the study area (Oceanprof and Habitats project): red circle (station in the Almirante Câmara canyon); and blue circle (station in the Almirante Câmara canyon). Pararotalia cananeiaensis is an herbivorous, epifaunal species characteristic of a marine environment. species were previously considered to be the most heavy metal-tolerant foraminifer species. 16 ( 3 ), 20 surface sediment samples were benthic foraminifera environment along and. Meso-Oligotrophic system with oxygenated bottom water [ 73 ] middle slope is characterized by the end of the foraminiferal can... In the most heavy metal-tolerant foraminifer species MB, Canada R3E 1B4 of Portugal (,. 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