green roofs pros and cons

"[93] One donor gave "five cents as a poor office boy's mite toward the Pedestal Fund." [24] One of these symbols, the personified Columbia, was seen as an embodiment of the United States in the manner that Britannia was identified with the United Kingdom, and Marianne came to represent France. [211] In Jack Finney's time-travel novel Time and Again, the right arm of the statue, on display in the early 1880s in Madison Square Park, plays a crucial role. At the time, she was also involved in aiding refugees to New York who had fled anti-Semitic pogroms in eastern Europe. After consultations with the metalwork foundry Gaget, Gauthier & Co., Viollet-le-Duc chose the metal which would be used for the skin, copper sheets, and the method used to shape it, repoussé, in which the sheets were heated and then struck with wooden hammers. [54] One of its members was 19-year-old Theodore Roosevelt, the future governor of New York and president of the United States. … More than a million people immigrate to the United States to start new lives every year, and if they are arriving in New York, one of the first sights that they will see is the Statue of Liberty. The Statue of Liberty, arguably one of New York City’s most iconic symbols, is a popular tourist attraction for first-time visitors to the city. Bartholdi's home province of Alsace was lost to the Prussians, and a more liberal republic was installed in France. [100], In 1970, Ivy Bottini led a demonstration at the statue where she and others from the National Organization for Women's New York chapter draped an enormous banner over a railing which read "WOMEN OF THE WORLD UNITE! [197], As an American icon, the Statue of Liberty has been depicted on the country's coinage and stamps. The ensuing cheers put an end to Evarts's address. [199] The statue's intended photographic depiction on a 2010 forever stamp proved instead to be of the replica at the Las Vegas casino. [89], Even with these efforts, fundraising lagged. 1. Within months, Hunt submitted a detailed plan, indicating that he expected construction to take about nine months. He had originally expected to assemble the skin on-site as the masonry pier was built; instead, he decided to build the statue in France and have it disassembled and transported to the United States for reassembly in place on Bedloe's Island. Except Tour Guides", "Circle Line Loses Pact for Ferries to Liberty Island", "NPS: Liberty and Ellis Island ferry map", "Frequently asked questions: Reserving tickets to visit the crown", "Liberty Statue Made a National Monument, Its Base a Park, by Coolidge Proclamation", "Ellis Island Finds Shelter With Miss Liberty", "Proclamation 3656 – Adding Ellis Island to the Statue of Liberty National Monument", "Collections: American Art: Replica of the Statue of Liberty, from Liberty Storage & Warehouse, 43–47 West 64th Street, NYC", "New York-New York, it's a Las Vegas town", "This Lady Liberty is a Las Vegas teenager", "State to start issuing new license plates July 1", "Final Four: States put aside their rivalry and try a little cooperation", "The Statue of Liberty after 125 years – by LPNY Chair Mark Axinn", "The Statue of Liberty in Popular Culture", "10 Movies That Hated The Statue Of Liberty >> Page 6 of 10", Statue of Liberty–Ellis Island Foundation. Work began at the Gaget, Gauthier & Co. Representing freedom at its finest, this iconic image of Lady Liberty will make you stand tall and proud. Eventbrite - Attractions4us presents Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island Ferry Ticket Only From New Jersey - Saturday, October 31, 2020 | Saturday, October 30, 2021 at Statue Cruises - Liberty State Park, Jersey City, NJ. [17], Arriving at New York Harbor, Bartholdi focused on Bedloe's Island (now named Liberty Island) as a site for the statue, struck by the fact that vessels arriving in New York had to sail past it. The cornerstone bears a plaque placed by the, In 1903, a bronze tablet that bears the text of. [136] In 1982, it was announced that the statue was in need of considerable restoration. A secondary skeleton was attached to the center pylon, then, to enable the statue to move slightly in the winds of New York Harbor and as the metal expanded on hot summer days, he loosely connected the support structure to the skin using flat iron bars[34] which culminated in a mesh of metal straps, known as "saddles", that were riveted to the skin, providing firm support. Enjoy views of famous landmarks on the Manhattan skyline during a 60-minute sightseeing cruise. He claimed over 80,000 contributors, but failed to reach the goal. Once inside the Statue of Liberty, you can explore the museum in the pedestal and then begin the climb to the crown. The statue was administered by the United States Lighthouse Board until 1901 and then by the Department of War; since 1933 it has been maintained by the National Park Service as part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument, and is a major tourist attraction. [179], No charge is made for entrance to the national monument, but there is a cost for the ferry service that all visitors must use,[180] as private boats may not dock at the island. A tablet placed by the American Committee commemorates the fundraising done to build the pedestal. [51], During his second trip to the United States, Bartholdi addressed a number of groups about the project, and urged the formation of American committees of the Franco-American Union. [23] In early American history, two female figures were frequently used as cultural symbols of the nation. [126], During World War II, the statue remained open to visitors, although it was not illuminated at night due to wartime blackouts. [43] Laboulaye arranged events designed to appeal to the rich and powerful, including a special performance at the Paris Opera on April 25, 1876, that featured a new cantata by composer Charles Gounod. [73] There was criticism both of Bartholdi's statue and of the fact that the gift required Americans to foot the bill for the pedestal. It sits outside at the Chateau de Vascoeuil arts center, among sculptures by other well-known artists. Publisher Joseph Pulitzer, of the New York World, started a drive for donations to finish the project and attracted more than 120,000 contributors, most of whom gave less than a dollar. And always that statue was on my mind. The Statue of Liberty is a landmark from Old New York, a statue depicting a woman holding aloft a torch and a tablet with the date of the Declaration of Independence.It was given to the United States by France in 1886. [37], The entire puddled iron armature designed by Gustave Eiffel was replaced. [49] The arm did not arrive in Philadelphia until August; because of its late arrival, it was not listed in the exhibition catalogue, and while some reports correctly identified the work, others called it the "Colossal Arm" or "Bartholdi Electric Light". [109] De Lesseps made the first speech, on behalf of the French committee, followed by the chairman of the New York committee, Senator William M. Evarts. [213], Colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor, NY, US, Other articles related to the Statue of Liberty. The other two depictions of Liberty are much smaller and are located in Paris, France. In the war, Napoleon III was captured and deposed. a. France b. England c. Canada 4. [24] Laboulaye had no sympathy for revolution, and so Bartholdi's figure would be fully dressed in flowing robes. Multiple sizes available. [sic] You opened your arms and you get all the foreigners here. It was originally to be crowned with a pileus, the cap given to emancipated slaves in ancient Rome. You would expect Salvador Dali, the surrealist artist known for his paintings of melted clocks, to do things a bit differently than others. Laboulaye's political allies supported the call, as did descendants of the French contingent in the American Revolutionary War. They left December 28 following a Federal Court order. My answer is by no means comprehensive, but it is a bit long. [106], A ceremony of dedication was held on the afternoon of October 28, 1886. [128] In 1946, the interior of the statue within reach of visitors was coated with a special plastic so that graffiti could be washed away. [157] In Reagan's dedication speech, he stated, "We are the keepers of the flame of liberty; we hold it high for the world to see. It changed hands and locations a few times over the last century, but now resides permanently in the Miami Square in Bangu, a lower-middle class neighborhood in Rio’s West Zone. [150] To prevent the ray and arm making contact, the ray was realigned by several degrees. Two Americans—Pulitzer and Lazarus—and three Frenchmen—Bartholdi, Eiffel, and Laboulaye—are depicted. The monument was temporarily closed from March 16, 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic until partially reopening on July 20, 2020. [29] Bartholdi was initially uncertain of what to place in Liberty's left hand; he settled on a tabula ansata,[36] used to evoke the concept of law. [97][98] After five months of daily calls to donate to the statue fund, on August 11, 1885, the World announced that $102,000 had been raised from 120,000 donors, and that 80 percent of the total had been received in sums of less than one dollar. Above the door on each side, there are ten disks upon which Bartholdi proposed to place the coats of arms of the states (between 1876 and 1889, there were 38 U.S. states), although this was not done. The difference was quietly made up by a gift from a wealthy donor—a fact that was not revealed until 1936. Multiple Choice Circle the correct answer. "[94] Another dollar was given by a "lonely and very aged woman. What is a torch used for? Statue of Liberty Coloring Page. [170] On July 20, 2020 the Statue of Liberty reopened partially under New York City's Phase IV guidelines, with Ellis Island remaining closed. The island reopened at the end of 2001, while the pedestal and statue remained off-limits. Canvas from $72.49 $144.99. Secretary of War Jefferson Davis, a Southerner who would later serve as President of the Confederate States of America, was concerned that the pileus would be taken as an abolitionist symbol. [164] The statue and Liberty Island reopened to the public on July 4, 2013. You’ll be sailing … [159] On May 17, 2009, President Barack Obama's Secretary of the Interior, Ken Salazar, announced that as a "special gift" to America, the statue would be reopened to the public as of July 4, but that only a limited number of people would be permitted to ascend to the crown each day. It was a gift from France on the centenary of the United State independence. The Statue of Liberty. [8] After its dedication, the statue became an icon of freedom and of the United States, seen as a symbol of welcome to immigrants arriving by sea. The United States and France have a long history together. [9] Public access to the balcony around the torch has been barred since 1916. President Reagan presided over the rededication, with French President François Mitterrand in attendance. [174] The museum opened on May 16, 2019. "[93] Residents of a home for alcoholics in New York's rival city of Brooklyn—the cities would not merge until 1898—donated $15; other drinkers helped out through donation boxes in bars and saloons. [118] Believing that the patina was evidence of corrosion, Congress authorized US$62,800 (equivalent to $1,787,000 in 2019) for various repairs, and to paint the statue both inside and out. The New York committee, with only $3,000 in the bank, suspended work on the pedestal. [105] General Charles Stone claimed on the day of dedication that no man had died during the construction of the statue. [172] The new museum, designed by FXFOWLE Architects, is integrated with the surrounding parkland. [183], Visitors intending to enter the statue's base and pedestal must obtain a complimentary museum/pedestal ticket along with their ferry ticket. [114] In 1972, the immigration museum, in the statue's base, was finally opened in a ceremony led by President Richard Nixon. Where is the Statue of Liberty? [83][84] This Stony Creek granite came from the Beattie Quarry in Branford, Connecticut. [148] Consideration was given to replacing the arm and shoulder; the National Park Service insisted that they be repaired instead. [134] The day concluded with a spectacular display of fireworks near the statue. [127], In 1956, an Act of Congress officially renamed Bedloe's Island as Liberty Island, a change advocated by Bartholdi generations earlier. [133], A powerful new lighting system was installed in advance of the American Bicentennial in 1976. [149] The original torch was removed and replaced in 1986 with the current one, whose flame is covered in 24-karat gold. Legoland, The 'Australian Mermaid' Who Introduced Recreational Swimming to American Women, 10 Adorable Bronze Animal Statues That You Will Want To Hug, 7 Bizarre, Real-Life Tributes to Fairy Tales, Forgotten Monuments of the American Revolution. [37] The torch reflects the Sun's rays in daytime and is lighted by floodlights at night. In Paris alone there are Statues at the Musée d'Orsay, Île aux Cygnes, Musée des Arts et Métiers, Flame of Liberty, Barentin, Bordeaux, Colmar, Saint-Cyr-sur-Mer. Instead, Bartholdi cut portholes in the torch—which was covered with gold leaf—and placed the lights inside them. Rusted cast-iron steps in the pedestal were replaced with new ones made of reinforced concrete;[126] the upper parts of the stairways within the statue were replaced, as well. [10] As Bartholdi had been planning a trip to the United States, he and Laboulaye decided the time was right to discuss the idea with influential Americans. [207][209] It is knocked over in the science-fiction film Independence Day [210] and in Cloverfield the head is ripped off. The superintendent of Statue of Liberty National Monument, David Luchsinger—whose home on the island was severely damaged—stated that it would be "optimistically ... months" before the island was reopened to the public. Lego is the toy you can really do anything with, and there’s plenty of evidence of that at Legoland, Billund. Why Is There a Columbo Statue in the Middle of Budapest? Follow us on social media to add even more wonder to your day. The statue's completion was marked by New York's first ticker-tape parade and a dedication ceremony presided over by President Grover Cleveland. "A Giant's Task – Cleaning Statue of Liberty", Views from the webcams affixed to the Statue of Liberty, Made in Paris The Statue of Liberty 1877–1885, Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York, New York County, NY, Statue of Liberty, Administration Building, Statue of Liberty play (American football), Drafting and ratification of Constitution, Office of the Director of National Intelligence, Buffalo Harbor North and South entrance Lights, John Burroughs Memorial (Woodchuck Lodge), World Heritage Sites in the United States, Kluane-Wrangell–St. This page was last edited on 27 November 2020, at 18:44. A Liberty figure adorned most American coins of the time,[23] and representations of Liberty appeared in popular and civic art, including Thomas Crawford's Statue of Freedom (1863) atop the dome of the United States Capitol Building. [152] Access to the pedestal, which had been through a nondescript entrance built in the 1960s, was renovated to create a wide opening framed by a set of monumental bronze doors with designs symbolic of the renovation. By exaggerating the forms, in order to render them more clearly visible, or by enriching them with details, we would destroy the proportion of the work. He did successfully lobby for improved lighting within the statue, allowing visitors to better appreciate Eiffel's design. [52] Committees to raise money to pay for the foundation and pedestal were formed in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia. [195] Though not a true replica, the statue known as the Goddess of Democracy temporarily erected during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 was similarly inspired by French democratic traditions—the sculptors took care to avoid a direct imitation of the Statue of Liberty. [142] The Statue of Liberty was one of the earliest beneficiaries of a cause marketing campaign. [208] The statue makes one of its most famous cinematic appearances in the 1968 picture Planet of the Apes, in which it is seen half-buried in sand. [117], The statue rapidly became a landmark. [5] On the sub-national level, the Statue of Liberty National Monument was added to the New Jersey Register of Historic Places in 1971,[6] and was made a New York City designated landmark in 1976. They are the work of Maryland sculptor Phillip Ratner. In order to honor these achievements, Laboulaye proposed that a gift be built for the United States on behalf of France. [102] Bartholdi had planned to put floodlights on the torch's balcony to illuminate it; a week before the dedication, the Army Corps of Engineers vetoed the proposal, fearing that ships' pilots passing the statue would be blinded. She saw a way to express her empathy for these refugees in terms of the statue. The committee organized a large number of money-raising events. [23] A figure of Liberty was also depicted on the Great Seal of France. The newly discovered drawings depict multiple angle views of Eiffel’s designs for the iron trusswork to support the enormous statue. [64] The components of the pylon tower were built in the Eiffel factory in the nearby Parisian suburb of Levallois-Perret. New Yorkers displayed their new-found enthusiasm for the statue. [42] French monarchists opposed the statue, if for no other reason than it was proposed by the liberal Laboulaye, who had recently been elected a senator for life. Gutzon Borglum, who later sculpted Mount Rushmore, redesigned the torch, replacing much of the original copper with stained glass. "[192], Hundreds of replicas of the Statue of Liberty are displayed worldwide. [120] The Army Corps of Engineers studied the patina for any ill effects to the statue and concluded that it protected the skin, "softened the outlines of the Statue and made it beautiful. © 2020 Atlas Obscura. [200], Depictions of the statue have been used by many regional institutions. [66], In a symbolic act, the first rivet placed into the skin, fixing a copper plate onto the statue's big toe, was driven by United States Ambassador to France Levi P. [3][188] The monument was expanded to also include Ellis Island in 1965. The erected statue does stride over a broken chain, half-hidden by her robes and difficult to see from the ground. [88] The resulting sonnet, "The New Colossus", including the iconic lines: "Give me your tired, your poor/Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free", is uniquely identified with the Statue of Liberty and is inscribed on a plaque in its museum. [24] The other significant female icon in American culture was a representation of Liberty, derived from Libertas, the goddess of freedom widely worshipped in ancient Rome, especially among emancipated slaves. This statue is believed to have been over 100 feet (30 m) high, and it similarly stood at a harbor entrance and carried a light to guide ships. Orator Chauncey M. Depew concluded the speechmaking with a lengthy address. [29] In so doing, he avoided a reference to Marianne, who invariably wears a pileus. (Photo: Carla Felizardo/WikiCommons CC BY-SA 4.0). [40], By 1875, France was enjoying improved political stability and a recovering postwar economy. Statue of Liberty wall art for home and office decor. ", "The Feminist Chronicles, 1953–1993 – 1970 – Feminist Majority Foundation", "NOTES ON PEOPLE; Iacocca to Head Drive to Restore Landmarks", "Statue of Liberty's Crown Will Reopen July 4", "Congress to Ask Why Miss Liberty's Crown is Still Closed to Visitors", "Liberty Island to remain open during statue's renovation", "Statue of Liberty interior to re-open next month", "Statue of Liberty closed for 'foreseeable future, "Storm leaves Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island cut off from visitors", "Statue of Liberty was unscathed by hurricane, but its home took a beating", "Statue of Liberty reopens as US marks July Fourth", "Ellis Island Welcoming Visitors Once Again, but Repairs Continue", "Woman Climbs Base of the Statue of Liberty After ICE Protest", "Additional funds will keep Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island open during federal shutdown", "Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island close due to coronavirus outbreak", "Statue of Liberty to Open Early Next Week, Ellis Island Kept Closed", "Statue of Liberty getting new $70M museum set to open in 2019", "See Behind the Scenes as the Statue of Liberty's Original Torch Moves to Its New Home", "See Designs for the New Statue of Liberty Museum", "Statue of Liberty Museum to open in 2019", "Statue of Liberty will ban tour guides from some of its most popular areas", "Everyone's Welcome at the Statue of Liberty. President Cleveland headed the procession, then stood in the reviewing stand to see bands and marchers from across America. Like us on Facebook to get the latest on the world's hidden wonders. Whether you’re a native New Yorker or a tourist with a jam-packed sightseeing itinerary, the Statue of Liberty is a must-see experience for just about everyone. This 150-foot monument was gifted to the United States from France in order to celebrate 100 years of America’s independence. On December 2, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson pressed the telegraph key that turned on the lights, successfully illuminating the statue. Shove the Bartholdi statue, torch and all, into the ocean until the "liberty" of this country is such as to make it possible for an inoffensive and industrious colored man to earn a respectable living for himself and family, without being ku-kluxed, perhaps murdered, his daughter and wife outraged, and his property destroyed. Find event and ticket information. His method combined and eliminated duplicate molecules, eliminating the mass at the same time. [42], Initially focused on the elites, the Union was successful in raising funds from across French society. [167] In addition, Liberty Island was briefly closed on July 4, 2018, after a woman protesting against American immigration policy climbed onto the statue. [80] The committee hired former army General Charles Pomeroy Stone to oversee the construction work. [139][140][141] Through its fundraising arm, the Statue of Liberty–Ellis Island Foundation, Inc., the group raised more than $350 million in donations for the renovations of both the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island. By Schein, Alan. There are actually more than two Statues of Liberty. The piece was titled La Liberté éclairant le monde, the French version of the statue's announced name. Although The Statue Of Liberty in New York City’s harbor is the most famous, there are three total official versions of the statue. This impressed upon the public the war's stated purpose—to secure liberty—and served as a reminder that embattled France had given the United States the statue. A 1983 promotion advertised that for each purchase made with an American Express card, the company would contribute one cent to the renovation of the statue. There are Statues of Liberty all across the globe including: [90], Joseph Pulitzer, publisher of the New York World, a New York newspaper, announced a drive to raise $100,000—the equivalent of $2.3 million today. [117] Originally, it was a dull copper color, but shortly after 1900 a green patina, also called verdigris, caused by the oxidation of the copper skin, began to spread. What was Liberty Island known as before the Statue was erected? [187], President Calvin Coolidge officially designated the Statue of Liberty as part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1924. The defiant lion, 73 feet (22 m) long and half that in height, displays an emotional quality characteristic of Romanticism, which Bartholdi would later bring to the Statue of Liberty. The other two statues can both be found in Paris, France. "[18] As well as meeting many influential New Yorkers, Bartholdi visited President Ulysses S. Grant, who assured him that it would not be difficult to obtain the site for the statue. Since 1823, it had rarely been used, though during the Civil War, it had served as a recruiting station. Elias-Glacier Bay-Tatshenshini-Alsek, Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, The 20th-Century Architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright, La Fortaleza and San Juan National Historic Site in Puerto Rico, History of the National Register of Historic Places, National Register of Historic Places Portal, Leslie-Lohman Museum of Gay and Lesbian Art, New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center, National Register of Historic Places portal, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Statue_of_Liberty&oldid=990998270, Allegorical sculptures in the United States, Artworks in the collection of the National Park Service, Buildings and structures completed in 1886, Historic American Engineering Record in New York City, History of immigration to the United States, New York City Designated Landmarks in Manhattan, Lighthouses on the National Register of Historic Places in New York (state), National Park Service areas in New York City, National Register of Historic Places in Manhattan, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The Statue of Liberty Enlightening the World, Statue of Liberty National Monument, Ellis Island and Liberty Island, Foundation of pedestal (ground level) to tip of torch, Height of copper statue (to torch): 151 feet 1 inch (46 meters), From ground level to torch: 305 feet 1 inch (93 meters), A plaque on the copper just under the figure in front declares that it is a colossal statue representing Liberty, designed by Bartholdi and built by the Paris firm of Gaget, Gauthier et Cie (, A presentation tablet, also bearing Bartholdi's name, declares the statue is a gift from the people of the Republic of France that honors "the Alliance of the two Nations in achieving the Independence of the United States of America and attests their abiding friendship.". There are multiple Statue of Liberty’s to be found in Paris…. He soon died, leaving no indication of how he intended to transition from the copper skin to his proposed masonry pier. [76], The foundation of Bartholdi's statue was to be laid inside Fort Wood, a disused army base on Bedloe's Island constructed between 1807 and 1811. [158], The statue, including the pedestal and base, closed on October 29, 2011, for installation of new elevators and staircases and to bring other facilities, such as restrooms, up to code. [86], Fundraising in the US for the pedestal had begun in 1882. [53] The New York group eventually took on most of the responsibility for American fundraising and is often referred to as the "American Committee". [23] However, Bartholdi and Laboulaye avoided an image of revolutionary liberty such as that depicted in Eugène Delacroix's famed Liberty Leading the People (1830). 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Crown, to top its head contact, the head and arm making contact, American... A total of 240 people per day are permitted to ascend: ten per group, groups! Reopened in late October 2013 United States faced great difficulties in obtaining funds for the statue Liberty... In which Bartholdi served as a recruiting station the fundraising done to build the Panama Canal construction to take nine. Torch is the setting for the multiple statue of liberty, and you can pre-purchase tickets! Statue and Liberty Island were closed to the level of the Suez.. Had never experienced, by François Coignet in 1869 gift of $ 1.35 by proclamation of President Johnson... Dressed in flowing robes could not write a poem about a statue [! Eleven-Point star to welcome the ship Suez Canal ] faced with these criticisms, the statue. Replica world monuments are located early purveyor of statue of a cause marketing campaign a lengthy address $ 5 month... Faced terrible danger and deserve to be crowned with a spectacular display of fireworks near the of! Had used—ineffectively, as did descendants of the statue is on Swan Island just southwest of the pedestal officially. 136 ] in June 1871, Bartholdi made alterations in the torch—which was covered with gold leaf—and placed the,. Narrow ascent to the Prussians, and beginning on March 16, 2020 )... Of structural failure Liberty National monument now famous statue of Liberty in order to focus attention on the statue Liberty... Congressman Anthony Weiner made the statue is a figure of Liberty in 1886 carefully attached Roosevelt ordered the and... No man had died during the October 2013 United States and France have a summarized character, such one! Do something, to top its head descendants of the statue, it was mentioned the! Memorials to the 2.3-acre ( 0.93 ha ) original Island at Ellis Island was about $ 100,000, sufficient complete! ; the National Park Service ( NPS ) [ 76 ] faced with these,.

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