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HHS This chapter discusses the uncertainty in the data and the analyses associated with one of those factors, human health risk estimates. A risk assessment report should also address variability and uncertainty to increase transparency and understanding of the assessment. Variability and uncertainty will exist in any assessment. See the Tiers and Types Tool Set of EPA ExpoBox for more information on using a tiered approach for exposure assessment. When considering a population’s exposure to urban air pollution, variability may exist in the measured pollution exposure concentrations due to when, where, and how the different measurements were taken (e.g., weekday vs. weekend measurements near roads in a city’s financial district can be very different; measurements from personal air monitoring devices will vary across individuals due to individuals’ behavior, such as how much time they spend outdoors). Increaaed knowledge of inter- and intraspecies sensitivity, mechanisms of ac-tion, and detailed evaluation of data bases can support the use of data-derived uncertainty factors, which ulti-mately results in a risk assessment with greater confi-dence. 2018 Apr;61(4):282-292. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22815. When variability is not characterized and uncertainty is high there is less confidence in the exposure and risk estimates; characterizing variability and reducing uncertainty increases the confidence in the estimates. The science behind the use of uncertainty factors has progressed considerably. The uncertainty factor concept is integrated into health risk assessments for all aspects of public health practice, including by most organizations that derive occupational exposure limits. ( 73…, Figure 3. Application of the CSAF approach with additional uncertainty factors for exposure limit setting.…, Figure 5. Uncertainty factors are used to compensate for a deficiency in knowledge concerning the accuracy of test results and the difficulty in estimating the health effects in a different species and/or in different exposure conditions. Ihrie MD, Taylor-Just AJ, Walker NJ, Stout MD, Gupta A, Richey JS, Hayden BK, Baker GL, Sparrow BR, Duke KS, Bonner JC. Uncertainty (e.g., only laboratory data may be available, field or epidemiological data may be limited and less than clear‐cut, etc.) Uncertainty can be reduced or eliminated with more or better data. EFSA is providing training to its scientists and working with EU risk managers as well as other European and international risk assessors to promote a harmonised understanding of uncertainty assessment. 2020 Jan;61(1):152-175. doi: 10.1002/em.22326. Generally, this is for product registration such as for pesticides or chemicals in commerce. The U.S. EPA's Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) refers to uncertainty factors as assessment factors [19, 25]. For example, grouping individuals with unique measured exposure levels into categories of exposure ranges can introduce aggregation errors and subsequent uncertainty. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). Hyg. Crit. (2011). Each assessment design will have unique considerations for uncertainty and variability. 1995;39:375–385. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment Exit. Risk is a result of uncertainty concerning the consequences of a hazardous situation. Occup. The extent to which uncertainties in data and analyses can be measured and expressed in highly quantitative terms depends upon the types of investigations used to develop scientific knowledge. Fairhurst S. The uncertainty factor in the setting of occupational exposure limits. 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