# root locus of closed loop system

The root locus is a curve of the location of the poles of a transfer function as some parameter (generally the gain K) is varied. A diagonal line of constant damping in the s-plane maps around a spiral from (1,0) in the z plane as it curves in toward the origin. In control theory and stability theory, root locus analysis is a graphical method for examining how the roots of a system change with variation of a certain system parameter, commonly a gain within a feedback system. ( s H {\displaystyle \sum _{Z}} The roots of this equation may be found wherever ( Many other interesting and relevant mapping properties can be described, not least that z-plane controllers, having the property that they may be directly implemented from the z-plane transfer function (zero/pole ratio of polynomials), can be imagined graphically on a z-plane plot of the open loop transfer function, and immediately analyzed utilizing root locus. ( K Root locus starts (K=0) at poles of open loop transfer function, G(s)H(s). for any value of s I.e., does it satisfy the angle criterion? Plotting the root locus. point of the root locus if. More elaborate techniques of controller design using the root locus are available in most control textbooks: for instance, lag, lead, PI, PD and PID controllers can be designed approximately with this technique. ) The radio has a "volume" knob, that controls the amount of gain of the system. As I read on the books, root locus method deal with the closed loop poles. From above two cases, we can conclude that the root locus branches start at open loop poles and end at open loop zeros. The root locus of an (open-loop) transfer function H(s) is a plot of the locations (locus) of all possible closed loop poles with proportional gain k and unity feedback: The closed-loop transfer function is: and thus the poles of the closed loop system are values of s such that 1 + K H(s) = 0. In a feedback control system, at least part of the information used to change the output variable is derived from measurements performed on the output variable itself. Characteristic equation of closed loop control system is, $$\angle G(s)H(s)=\tan^{-1}\left ( \frac{0}{-1} \right )=(2n+1)\pi$$. The definition of the damping ratio and natural frequency presumes that the overall feedback system is well approximated by a second order system; i.e. − These are shown by an "x" on the diagram above As K→∞ the location of closed loop poles move to the zeros of the open loop transfer function, G(s)H(s). G For example gainversus percentage overshoot, settling time and peak time. K the system has a dominant pair of poles. K a Also visit the main page, The root-locus method: Drawing by hand techniques, "RootLocs": A free multi-featured root-locus plotter for Mac and Windows platforms, "Root Locus": A free root-locus plotter/analyzer for Windows, MATLAB function for computing root locus of a SISO open-loop model, "Root Locus Algorithms for Programmable Pocket Calculators", Mathematica function for plotting the root locus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Root_locus&oldid=990864797, Articles needing additional references from January 2008, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Mark real axis portion to the left of an odd number of poles and zeros, Phase condition on test point to find angle of departure, This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 23:20. ∑ Root locus plots are a plot of the roots of a characteristic equation on a complex coordinate system. Wont it neglect the effect of the closed loop zeros? can be calculated. Proportional control. Complex Coordinate Systems. H and the zeros/poles. s There exist q = n - m = 2 - 1 = 1 closed loop pole (s) as K→∞, |s|→∞. s Computer-program description", Carnegie Mellon / University of Michigan Tutorial, Excellent examples. Introduction to Root Locus. K and the use of simple monomials means the evaluation of the rational polynomial can be done with vector techniques that add or subtract angles and multiply or divide magnitudes. {\displaystyle K} Root Locus 1 CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM STABILITY 1 Closed Loop System Stability Recall that any system is stable if all the poles lie on the LHS of the s-plane. High volume means more power going to the speakers, low volume means less power to the speakers. The denominator polynomial yields n = 2 pole (s) at s = -1 and 2 . {\displaystyle K} − N(s) represents the numerator term having (factored) nth order polynomial of ‘s’. Finite zeros are shown by a "o" on the diagram above.  The rules are the following: Let P be the number of poles and Z be the number of zeros: The asymptotes intersect the real axis at Thus, only a proportional controller, , will be considered to solve this problem.The closed-loop transfer function becomes: (2) Thus, the technique helps in determining the stability of the system and so is utilized as a stability criterion in control theory. Note that all the examples presented in this web page discuss closed-loop systems because they include all systems with feedback. ( Basics of Root Locus • In the root locus diagram, the path of the closed loop poles can be observe. {\displaystyle n} This is a technique used as a stability criterion in the field of classical control theory developed by Walter R. Evans which can determine stability of the system. a horizontal running through that zero) minus the angles from the open-loop poles to the point {\displaystyle (s-a)} If $K=\infty$, then $N(s)=0$. ( 0. b. is varied. The factoring of {\displaystyle G(s)} The number of branches of root locus is equal to the number of closed-loop poles, generally the number of poles of GH (s). H Each branch contains one closed-loop pole for any particular value of K. 2. s 2. c. 5. + ϕ This is a technique used as a stability criterion in the field of classical control theory developed by Walter R. Evans which can determine stability of the system. Plot Complimentary Root Locus for negative values of Gain Plot Root Contours by varying multiple parameters. s {\displaystyle K} K to Therefore there are 2 branches to the locus. = ) where n Recall from the Introduction: Root Locus Controller Design page, the root-locus plot shows the locations of all possible closed-loop poles when a single gain is varied from zero to infinity. are the Show, then, with the same formal notations onwards. Lines of constant damping ratio can be drawn radially from the origin and lines of constant natural frequency can be drawn as arccosine whose center points coincide with the origin. (measured per pole w.r.t. {\displaystyle s} The root locus is a plot of the roots of the characteristic equation of the closed-loop system as a function of gain. {\displaystyle K} = 4 1. Basics of Root Locus • In the root locus diagram, the path of the closed loop poles can be observe. ⁡ As the volume value increases, the poles of the transfer function of the radio change, and they might potentially become unstable. Hence, it can identify the nature of the control system. . ∑ α Find Angles Of Departure/arrival Ii. ( The solutions of s that is, the sum of the angles from the open-loop zeros to the point The root locus plots the poles of the closed loop transfer function in the complex s-plane as a function of a gain parameter (see pole–zero plot). 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